Expect a significant increase in prostate cancer rates

Paris – Prostate cancer rates are expected to increase significantly in various parts of the world in the coming years, especially in less affluent countries, according to a study published in The Lancet, which explained this trend with the expected aging of the population.

The authors of the study, published Thursday, concluded that from an expansion of currently recorded population changes, “the annual number of new cases, which reached 1.4 million in 2020, will double by 2040, reaching 2.9 million infections.” The researchers attributed the rise to “increasing life expectancy and changes in age pyramids.”

Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer in men, accounting for 15 percent of all cases, and most cases occur in men over the age of fifty. The frequency of cases gradually increases in the age group above this limit.

As many poor or developing countries are in the process of partially closing the life expectancy gap compared to their developed counterparts, the number of prostate cancer cases is expected to increase automatically. “Unlike other major problems such as lung cancer or cardiovascular disease, it is not possible through public health policies to avoid an increase in these cases,” the researchers added.

In fact, prevention is not as effective in reducing risk factors for prostate cancer as genetics, height, and smoking cessation are for lung cancer. Only an association between prostate cancer and overweight has been proven, but it is unclear whether the relationship is causal.

However, the study authors believe that several measures can reduce the incidence of prostate cancer. For example, they called for early diagnosis to be sought in less affluent countries, where prostate cancers are diagnosed too late to be effectively treated. On the other hand, they warned of the risk of “overdiagnosis and overtreatment” in developed countries.

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Prostate cancer is a cancer that occurs in the prostate gland. It is a small, walnut-shaped gland found in males that produces seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm. Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. Many types of prostate cancer grow slowly and are confined to the prostate gland and do not cause serious damage. However, some types of prostate cancer grow slowly and may require little or no treatment, while others are aggressive and spread quickly.

Prostate cancer, if detected at an early stage, while it is still confined to the prostate gland, has a better chance of successful treatment. Prostate cancer treatment options depend on many factors, such as the rate at which the cancer is growing, how far it has spread, and the patient's general health, as well as the potential benefits or side effects of treatment.

Prostate cancer surgery involves removing the prostate gland (radical prostatectomy), some surrounding tissue, and some lymph nodes. Surgery is one of the treatment options for cancer that has not spread beyond the prostate. It is sometimes used along with other treatments to treat advanced prostate cancer. Ablation treatments with cold or heat destroy prostate tissue.

• Frozen prostate tissue: Cryoablation, or cryotherapy, uses very cold gas to freeze prostate tissue. The tissue is then allowed to thaw, and the process is repeated continuously. The heating and cooling cycle destroys cancer cells and some surrounding healthy tissue.

• Heating of prostate tissue: In high-intensity ultrasound therapy, focused ultrasound energy is used to heat and destroy prostate tissue. Hormone therapy can treat prostate cancer, and hormone therapy is a treatment that blocks the production of the male hormone testosterone. Prostate cancer cells depend on testosterone to grow. Cutting off the supply of testosterone can cause cancer cells to die or grow more slowly.

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Hormone therapy options include drugs that stop the body from producing testosterone. Some drugs, known as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone or gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists and antagonists, work to prevent the body's cells from receiving testosterone-producing messages. As a result, the testicles stop producing testosterone.

Doctors have confirmed that prostate cancer occurs when changes occur in the DNA of cells in the prostate. A cell's DNA contains instructions that direct the cell to perform its specific function, but these changes cause the cell to grow and divide at a faster rate than normal cells. Thus, abnormal cells continue to grow while other cells die. These abnormal cells form a tumor and grow and invade nearby tissues. Then some abnormal cells break off after a while and move to other parts of the body.

Factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer include:

• Aging: The risk of developing prostate cancer increases as a person ages. It is more common after the age of fifty.

Race: For reasons that are still unknown, black men are more likely to develop prostate cancer than other races. Prostate cancer is more aggressive or progressive in black men.

• Family medical history: If a patient's birth relative, such as a parent, sibling, or child, has had prostate cancer, his risk may increase. Additionally, if a patient has a family history of genes that increase the risk of breast cancer (BRC1 or BRC2) or a very strong family history of breast cancer, the risk of prostate cancer may be higher.

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